Ethical Consumerism’s Role in the Pornhub Case and Its Implication in Korea

Ethical Consumerism’s Role in the Pornhub Case and Its Implication in Korea

 

Abstract

CSR, or corporate social responsibility has become an essential part of sustainable business. In recent days, this concept has more specifically evolved to ESG, which stands for environmental, social, and corporate governance. These are the categories that can be measured to ensure business sustainability. Both CSR and ESG are powered by ethical consumerism. Consumers are becoming more and more conscious and inclined to support corporations with ethical values. As a result, companies that abide by CSR and/or ESG can make more profit in the long term.

This paper examines the recent incident of the Pornhub in time series, from campaigns urging major credit companies to block usage on Pornhub and to the company taking down almost 80% of the videos on their site. Doing so, it examines how ethical consumerism, and ESG could bring change and suggests ways that could be implemented in Korea as well.

 

. Introduction

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was first introduced in 1970s. Since then, there has been an ongoing controversy concerning whether corporations should implement CSR depending on what view they take on the nature of companies’ responsibilities to the society. Some argue that it is a waste of money in that it does not attribute to company’s revenue while others see it as an effective means to increase profit in the long run. There have also been conflicting arguments on the effectiveness of CSR. Some believe that bringing change through either CSR or ethical consumerism (or both), is a myth. However, we have experienced countless examples of consumers and corporations making difference in the field of child labor, animal testing and so much more.

This paper briefly introduces the concept of CSR, Environment, Social and Governance (ESG), and ethical consumerism then examines the recent case of Pornhub and analyzes how effective ethical consumerism could be. This case is a great example of how much corporations can impact in bringing change, especially when after major credit card companies severed ties with Pornhub, it took less than a week for them to take down almost 80% of the videos on their site. Based on such examination, this paper will introduce how other companies, especially Korean companies could follow these footsteps.

 

Ⅱ. CSR, ESG and Ethical Consumerism

  1. Different Theories of CSR

While there are various versions as to what CSR means, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development defines CSR as the “continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large.”[1] CSR having numerous definitions and different key points is the result of its development being affected by various theories, including the stakeholder theory, social contracts theory and legitimacy theory. Stakeholder theory, as opposed to shareholder theory, argues that corporations should be responsible to not only shareholders but stakeholders who are any group or individual that can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives[2]. Social contracts theory views CSR as what a corporation is implicitly expected to do as a part of a society rather than a means for commercial interest. Legitimacy theory says that legitimacy and power granted by the society will be taken away when it is not used responsibly and thus corporations need to practice CSR. Whatever stance one takes in the development of CSR, it has moved from ideology to reality due to the belief that “not only is doing good the right thing to do, but it also leads to doing better”.[3] In other words, CSR has become an essential part of the business since it helps increase the revenues.

 

  1. ESG and Supply Chain Management

In the recent years, the concept of CSR has developed more specifically into the concept of ESG. ESG stands for environmental, social, and corporate governance – these three categories represent the focal points of sustainable development. The difference between CSR and ESG is that the latter is measured so that companies could incorporate these values. In fact, 93% of the world’s largest companies by revenue report their ESG, such as their plastic recycling.[4]

Supply chain management is an oversight on supply chain companies in order to ensure compliance within their value chain. This includes ESG, sustainable development, human rights, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption. For example, Patagonia runs “100% traceable down” program. This enables Patagonia and its customers to track down each and every single supplier to ensure that none of the animals are plucked alive.[5]

 

  1. Ethical Consumerism

Ethical consumerism means choosing to purchase or not to purchase a product depending on whether it meets certain ethical standards[6]. Ethical in this context includes animal welfare, animal testing, environmental concerns, fair trade, oppressive regimes, child labor and so much more.

Ethical consumerism is what keeps CSR and ESG afloat. More and more consumers are becoming conscious, forcing corporations to abide by CSR and/or ESG to increase sales or at least avoid boycotts. According to the 2015 Nielsen Global Corporate Sustainability Report, 66% of global consumers said that they were willing to pay more for sustainable brands and 73% of global millennials were willing to pay extra for sustainable offerings. As a result, in 2014, brands that showed commitment to sustainability have grown more than 4% globally, while those who have not grew less than 1%.[7]

There are numerous examples in which conscious consumers were able to bring democracy through their wallets. In 1997, many sportswear companies were forced to stop using child labor after a series of successful campaigns by Save the Children and trades unions. Ethically concerned consumers were also able to phase out aerosol, the worst ozone-depleting gas usages in fridges.[8] The case of Pornhub is the most recent and one of the fastest earned victory.

 

III. The Case of Pornhub

  1. Company Description

Pornhub is a pornography website owned by Mindgeek and is based in Montreal, Canada. It distinguishes itself from other pornography sites in its operation technique. Like Youtube, it allows its users to upload their own videos freely. This made them the largest pornography site in the world. It is the 10th most visited website in the world, and it attracts 3.5 billion visits a month, which is more than Netflix, Yahoo and Amazon.[9]

Although most of the 6.8 million new videos posted on the site each year feature adults that gave consent to having sex and being filmed, too many show rape – nonconsensual violence and not a porn that is staged to look like rape – and child abuse.

 

  1. Allegations Before the New York Times Exposé

(1) Immunity Granted by Section 230

Section 230 is a part of an American Internet regulation; the Communication Decency Act, which provides immunity to platform providers whose users, which are considered as a third party to the service providers, post contents[10]. As awareness grew, more and more people realized that this immunity provided by section 230 helped sexual trafficking to grow online. In 2018, Congress was able to revoke the immunity previously provided in section 230 from the platform service providers who knowingly aided in online sexual trafficking[11].

After losing its almost infinite immunity – before this limitation, their only concern was copyright infringement – Pornhub began complying better. It doubled the number of moderators, whose job is to go through all the videos uploaded to find contents that go against their company policy. It also voluntarily reported illegal materials to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children and compiled a list of banned content which includes “preteen” and “pedophilia”.

 

(2) GirlsDoPorn Incident

22 young women were coerced into sex trafficking by GirlsDoPorn, a pornography website that was active from 2009 to 2020. These young women auditioned for clothed modeling, but upon arriving on set were suggested to be on porn videos instead. They were assured that it will never be uploaded online, only be made in DVD and sold to collectors in Australia. After being guaranteed that no one they know will find out, some agreed, and some were physically forced to shoot porn. However, contrary to what they were promised, these videos were uploaded online including the biggest porn website – Pornhub[12].

Pornhub claims to have a strict policy regarding nonconsensual content, such as revenge porn. They say such contents that violate their Terms of Service are removed as soon as they are made aware of it. They also argue that they use state-of-the-art digital fingerprinting technique so that the same content cannot be uploaded ever again. That is, a video is marked with a unique tool just like a fingerprint so theoretically, when the same video is uploaded, the system recognizes the video and automatically removes it, making it impossible to upload the removed video. The specific process goes like this: victims first need to email Vobile, the company that Pornhub contract to for the digital fingerprint service. After Vobile confirms they fingerprinted the video, the victims need to fill out another form on the Pornhub website[13].

However, when the victims of GirlsDoPorn requested their videos to be removed, Pornhub initially declined, saying that they need to prove the videos in question were nonconsensual. It was only after the victims went through trial and Michael James Pratt, the owner of GirlsDoPorn became a wanted fugitive by FBI that Pornhub recognized the videos as nonconsensual and started deleting. This sends a message to other traffickers that victims need to go through at least that much of a trouble for their voices to be heard.

On top of that, their so called state-of-the-art digital fingerprinting technique can easily be deceived. A slight editing such as cutting the flagged video together, using a different watermark, or removing the sound enables users to upload essentially the same video again. In these days, the simple editing techniques mentioned above take less than 5 minutes at most. When notified of such problems, Pornhub remained silent. They claimed to be working closely with the victims’ counsel to erase the victims’ videos, but that turned out to be a lie. The legal team revealed that they were only sending the clients’ links, which cannot be called working closely with one another.[14]

 

(3) Campaigns Calling for Credit Card Freeze on Pornhub

Earlier this year, a group of international campaigners and campaign groups sent a letter to major credit card companies, urging them to cut ties with pornographic sites because they stream content that features child sexual abuse and sex trafficking. Mastercard responded that they will sever ties with the website if the company’s research shows what the campaigners are saying is true.

Pornhub said “the letter was not only factually wrong but also intentionally misleading”[15]. They explained that they are abiding by their policy of removing unauthorized content which includes deleting content that features child sexual abuse as soon as they are made aware of it. They argue this has been effective since the Internet Watch Foundation, a UK based non-profit organization fighting against online child sexual abuse, found only 118 videos of child sexual abuse from 2017 to 2019: meanwhile Facebook and Twitter removing millions of images and closing hundreds of thousands of accounts. Alhough the Internet Watch Foundation was not able to explain why the numbers were so low, there were hundreds of child sexual abuse videos on Pornhub. It even had playlists titled “less than 18”, “the best collection of young boys”.

 

  1. Allegations Before the New York Times Exposé

On December 4th, 2020, a New York Times article “The Children of Pornhub” was released. It shows how Pornhub has been systematically encouraging child sexual abuse and trafficking through numbers, algorithm, and most importantly, stories of child trafficking survivors.

There were far too many videos of non-consensual violence and child sex abuse on Pornhub. In these videos, men were opening the woman’s eyelid and/or scratching the bottom of their feet to prove that the woman was unconscious and that it was a rape video. Search for “Girl with braces” shows almost 2,000 videos and algorithm suggests searching for “exxxtra small teens” as a related keyword[16], which in itself is promoting pedophilia.

Many stepped forward to save others from the pain that they went through. Serena K. Fleites was one of them. She was an A student in Bakersfield, California. In eighth grade, a boy who she had a crush on asked her to send him a naked video of herself. He asked for more. Nervous but flattered, she continued to send more. But those videos that she sent changed her entire life. The boy shared those videos with others, and someone uploaded them on Pornhub. The boy was suspended, but she could not bear the shame. She transferred to another school, but the videos followed her. She asked Pornhub to remove the videos and they would disappear only to resurface in a day or two. She even tried to commit suicide. Eventually, she dropped out of school and ran away from home. She sold naked photos of herself to earn money because she thought she was not valuable anymore since everyone already saw her in Pornhub. Currently at age 19, she is living in a car with three dogs. She was only 14 when the videos were uploaded on Pornhub.

There is no perfect answer for online child sexual abuse, but the article urges banks or credit card companies to take action. It also suggests three steps for Pornhub to take: 1) allow only verified users to post videos 2) prohibit downloads 3) increase moderation – there are only 80 moderators worldwide, which means each moderator must go through hundreds of hours each week. On the contrary, Facebook employs 15,000 moderators.

Ethical consumers reacted to this. Differences on thoughts regarding porn set aside, they agreed that a company should not be making profit from rape and child sexual abuse. Serena made a stupid mistake. Kids make stupid mistakes all the time. But they should not be punished for it for the rest of their lives. The exposé created an outrage on social media. The article received about 1600 comments and the original posting of this New York Times article on twitter was retweeted more than 7,000 times, liked more than 12,000 times. The issue made into top 10 twitter trends in the US and Canada that day. These conscious customers formed a united voice compelling corporations, including Pornhub itself, bankers and credit card companies, and lawmakers to stop online child trafficking. They were not able to ignore their social duties anymore.

 

  1. Aftermath of the New York Times Exposé and Public’s Response

(1) Credit Card Companies

On December 5th, Mastercard announced they were investigating whether the claims in the New York Times article were true. They confirmed that they do not tolerate illegal activity in their payment network and if the allegations were to be substantiated, they will immediately take action[17]. On December 6th, Visa followed Mastercard’s lead and declared they were investigating on the matter as well[18]. Mastercard and Visa do not work with the retailers directly. Rather, they have a bank known as a merchant acquirer as a mediator in between the credit card companies and the retailers. When Mastercard and/or Visa findillegal activity in their payment network, they request the merchant acquirer to sever ties with the retailer unless they implement an effective compliance program. Thus, Mastercard and Visa’s investigation and follow-ups were in accordance with their own compliance program and code of conduct. But seeing that there were no effective actions taken when a group of campaigners sent a letter to these same companies, it would be safe to assume that public’s attention and its pressure played a big role. Another factor to consider is that the major credit card companies are in a competing relationship. Ethical consumers were comparing Paypal, which already stopped processing payment for Pornhub in 2019, to these credit card companies and urging them to follow its lead. Once Mastercard announced its investigation, Visa had to follow to not lose customers.

On December 10th, Mastercard declared that the use of their cards at Pornhub was terminated. They said that their investigation showed Pornhub violating Mastercard’s standards regarding unlawful content. Visa also suspended the use of their cards on the website. Though their investigation was incomplete, they wanted to show their vigilance in stamping out illegal activities in their payment network.[19]

On a side note, American Express is not accepted at Pornhub as it is their company policy to prohibit its usage on digital adult content websites.

 

(2) Pornhub

Pornhub first repeated its previous stance to the New York Times article: that the allegations are simply untrue and that they are doing their best to combat illegal contents such as child trafficking and revenge porn using industry leading technology.

As public’s outcry to hold Pornhub responsible for monetizing child sex abuse content grew, Pornhub implemented new safeguards on December 9th. They announced that 1) only verified users will be able to upload content, 2) downloads are not available anymore and 3) moderations will be improved[20]. They expressed “exceptional disappointment” after hearing Mastercard and Visa’s decision to sever ties with them on the next day[21].

On December 14th, just 10 days after the New York Times article was initially released, and just 4 days after major credit card companies’ decision to drop the platform entirely, Pornhub removed vast majority of its content. It removed all the videos that were not uploaded by their official content partner or members of its model program. They proclaimed that in an effort to implement their new policy about allowing only verified users to upload videos, they suspended all previously uploaded content posted by unverified users. As a result, the number of videos on the website decreased from 13.5 million to a little under 3 million[22].

 

(3) Legislators

Lawmakers also were not able to escape from their responsibilities. Conscious customers directly called out Justin Trudeau, the prime minister of Canada, and asked why someone who prides himself as a feminist would host such a company in their country. They asked Kamala Harris, the Vice President elect to investigate the matter since she had already taken these matters into hand during her years as Attorney General in California. The legislators responded and there are several bills being introduced. Senators Ben Sasse who is a Republican and Jeff Merkley who is a Democrat is introducing a bipartisan bill called the ‘Stop Internet Sexual Exploitation Act’. It would require pornography platforms to get a written consent from all the members that appear on the video, ban downloads of the contents, and take action against people who upload images without consent[23].

It is for certain that these measures will not put an end to online child sex abuse and nonconsensual violence. However, it is a step forward in that direction. Most importantly this case shows how quick corporations can react to consumer criticism. It took less than a week for major credit card companies to acknowledge illegal actions that were present in their payment cycle, just 10 days for the company in question to delete the illegal contents, and just 14 days for several bills to be introduced. It is definitely one of the fastest earned victory. The attention span of the public, even that of conscious consumers is short lived. In this case, meaningful changes were made during this short time.  That makes this case significant. The changes made possible by the public’s attention during its short time will make things better until ethical consumers pay attention to this field again.

 

IV. Possible Applications in Korea

Post-materialism and self-identity have been proven time and again to have positive correlation with ethical consumerism. Individuals who emphasize post-materialist values and whose self-identity is centered around ethical issues are more likely to make consumption choices accordingly as well[24].

The Korean economy grew rapidly. As a matter of fact, it grew too fast for the public’s awareness to catch up. Thus, ethical consumerism was considered to be in its infancy in Korea. However, recent cases show that more and more people are becoming aware of ethical issues related to corporations.

Namyang has been subject to one of the longest Boycotts in Korea. It started in 2013 when a salesperson forced branches to take over more products than they needed using verbal violence. In the same year it was exposed that Namyang has been forcing female employees to leave their jobs once they got married and/or had a child. Over the past 7 years, the company’s image has not improved, and its sales reduced 99.4%[25]. Namyang even tried launching a new brand without using their name in the forefront to avoid boycotting.

Recently, Maeil had a collaboration event with a known misogynist comedian. Ethical consumers expressed concerns and just a day after, an official apology saying that they never intended to employ the comedian in question as their model was made via the company’s SNS account. Though it would have been better to include that they should have overlooked the event process after it was delegated to a subcontractor, it was a quick response unforeseen in Korea.

These cases show hope for growth of ethical consumerism and CSR. From a legal stance, since making and distribution of porn is illegal in Korea, it is difficult to put responsibility on a particular company. Serena’s story is quite similar to that of the ‘Nth room’ victims. Teenagers sent naked images of themselves without realizing the risks of blackmailing and ended up being sexually abused for years. Some of the offenders are currently going through trial and many legislative changes were made after the incident. However, ways to hold Telegram accountable were never discussed enough, nor was the public’s response in unison. Rather, people who were outraged about sexual abuse on children and people – mostly men – that came together under the slogan “If I’m an offender you’re a whore” were arguing neck and neck.

Ethical consumerism is heavily motivated by each individual’s views on ethics, values, what is right and wrong and such. The problem is the standard for such views can be different between each person and culture. In the case of Pornhub, the public was able to agree that Serena was a victim of child sex abuse, while the Nth room victims are still debated on whether they can be considered as victims or not.

Corporations can do so much to bring change and that is one of the reasons why CSR is valued, but fundamentally, what makes corporations abide by CSR and actually commit to what’s right is ethical consumerism. The problem here is that ethical consumerism has its limits. It can only regulate fields that most consumers agree is illegal, in other words, ethical consumerism can only work till the minimum ‘bad’ of what the consumers think as a whole. All in all, although ethical consumerism has developed tremendously in Korea, it still has a room for improvement and that could be done by increasing awareness. For example, instead of telling girls to not get raped in sex education class, educating the public that child sex abuse must not be allowed no matter what will be helpful. While it may seem obvious and therfore unnecessary, response to Nth room case vividly shows that educating the obvious is needed and it would be better to start such education as early on as possible, such as their school years.

 

V. Conclusion

CSR developed into a more specific term ESG, which stands for environment, social and corporate governance. Nowadays, corporations not only overlook compliance of their company but also try to implement compliance in their supply chain as well. These are all fueled by ethical consumerism. Doing right helps companies do better in the terms of revenue.

The Pornhub case is one of the quickest victories. The New York Times article created outroar of ethical consumers urging Pornhub and credit card companies to comply. Within days, major credit card companies severed ties with Pornhub and not long after, Pornhub took down almost 80% of their videos.

There are signs of ethical consumerism growing in Korea, but there is still room for development. It could be done via education starting from school years since raising the lowest bar of ethics gives more room for ethical consumerism to work on.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Associated Press, “Visa, Mastercard Investigating Their Ties with Pornhub”, 06 Dec. 2020, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/visa-mastercard-investigating-their-business-ties-with-pornhub-01607307806?redirect=amp#click=https://t.co/FjLoH4fd5Y. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Brannon, Valerie C. “Free speech and the regulation of social media content.” Congressional Research Service, available at: https://fas. org/sgp/crs/misc 45650 (2019). (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Bruno, Bianca. “Courthouse News Service.” Courthouse News Service, https://www.courthousenews.com/. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Cho, Sooyoung, and Andreas H. Krasser. “What makes us care? The impact of cultural values, individual factors, and attention to media content on motivation for ethical consumerism.” International Social Science Review 86.1/2 (2011): 3-23.

Cole, Samantha. “How to Remove Revenge Porn Videos From Pornhub.” How to Remove Revenge Porn Videos From Pornhub. 2 Feb. 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/epgpqa/how-to-remove-videos-from-pornhub. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Dias, Elizabeth. “Trump Signs Bill Amid Momentum to Crack Down on Trafficking.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Apr. 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/11/us/backpage-sex-trafficking.html. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Irving, Sarah, Rob Harrison, and Mary Rayner. “Ethical consumerism–democracy through the wallet.” Journal of Research for Consumers 3.3 (2002): 63-83.

Lee, Sora, “Again, NamYang…Why They Were Not able to Escape the name of “Hierarchical Violence Company”, HankookIlbo, 10, May, 2020, https://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/202005081470382857. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Lindgreen, Adam, and Valérie Swaen. “Corporate social responsibility.” (2010): 1-7.

Mailberg, Emanuel, and Samantha Cole. “We Tried to Get Nonconsensual Porn Off Pornhub.” The Endless Battle to Remove Girls Do Porn Videos From Pornhub. 6 Feb. 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/9393zp/how-pornhub-moderation-works-girls-do-porn. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Matyjaszek, Harry. “CSR Is a Thing of the Past: Why More Businesses Need to Invest in ESG.” Energy Live News. 29 July 2020, https://www.energylivenews.com/2020/07/28/csr-is-a-thing-of-the-past-why-more-businesses-need-to-invest-in-esg/. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

McCaskill, Andrew. “Consumer-Goods’ Brands That Demonstrate Commitment to Sustainability Outperform Those That Don’t.” Nielsen. 10 Dec. 2015, https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/press-releases/2015/consumer-goods-brands-that-demonstrate-commitment-to-sustainability-outperform/. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Mohan, Megha. “Call for Credit Card Freeze on Porn Sites.” BBC News. BBC, 07 May 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-52543508. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Moir, Lance. “What do we mean by corporate social responsibility?.” Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society (2001).

Nicholas Kristof, Nicholas. “New York Times, The Children of Pornhub.” The New York Times. 4 Dec. 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/opinion/sunday/pornhub-rape-trafficking.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Patagonia, “Patagonia Introduces 100% Traceable Down”, https://www.patagonia.com/stories/lowdown-on-down-patagonia-introduces-100-traceable-down/story-17869.html#:~:text=From%20this%20season%20(fall%202014,down%20we%20can’t%20trace.. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Pornhub, “Our Commitment to Trust and Safety”, (2020), https://help.pornhub.com/hc/en-us/categories/360002934613. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

“Sasse, Merkley Unveil Urgently Needed Legislation to Crack Down on Online Sexual Exploitation.” Senator Ben Sasse. 18 Dec. 2020, https://www.merkley.senate.gov/news/press-releases/merkley-sasse-unveil-urgently-needed-legislation-to-crack-down-on-online-sexual-exploitation. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Shaban, Hamza. “Mastercard Severs Ties with Pornhub, Citing Illegal Content.” The Washington Post. WP Company, 11 Dec. 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/12/10/pornhub-mastercard-ban-mindgeek/. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

SuraneBookmark, Jennifer, Jennifer Surane, Stay Updated With Business News On BloombergQuint, and Business News. “Mastercard to Review Pornhub Ties After Column Spurs Outrage.” BloombergQuint. 07 Dec. 2020,https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-06/pornhub-complaints-by-columnist-prompt-mastercard-review-of-ties. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

Valinsky, Jordan. “Pornhub Removes a Majority of Its Videos after Investigation Reveals Child Abuse.” CNN. Cable News Network, 15 Dec. 2020, https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2020/12/15/business/pornhub-videos-removed/index.html?__twitter_impression=true. (Access Date: 2021-01-24)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Moir, Lance. “What do we mean by corporate social responsibility?.” Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society (2001).

[2] Ibid

[3] Lindgreen, Adam, and Valérie Swaen. “Corporate social responsibility.” (2010): 1-7.

[4] Matyjaszek, Harry. “CSR Is a Thing of the Past: Why More Businesses Need to Invest in ESG.” Energy Live News. 29 July 2020, https://www.energylivenews.com/2020/07/28/csr-is-a-thing-of-the-past-why-more-businesses-need-to-invest-in-esg/.

[5] Patagonia, “Patagonia Introduces 100% Traceable Down”, https://www.patagonia.com/stories/lowdown-on-down-patagonia-introduces-100-traceable-down/story-17869.html#:~:text=From%20this%20season%20(fall%202014,down%20we%20can’t%20trace..

[6] Cho, Sooyoung, and Andreas H. Krasser. “What makes us care? The impact of cultural values, individual factors, and attention to media content on motivation for ethical consumerism.” International Social Science Review 86.1/2 (2011): 3-23.

[7] McCaskill, Andrew. “Consumer-Goods’ Brands That Demonstrate Commitment to Sustainability Outperform Those That Don’t.” Nielsen. 10 Dec. 2015, https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/press-releases/2015/consumer-goods-brands-that-demonstrate-commitment-to-sustainability-outperform/.

[8] Irving, Sarah, Rob Harrison, and Mary Rayner. “Ethical consumerism–democracy through the wallet.” Journal of Research for Consumers 3.3 (2002): 63-83.

[9] Nicholas Kristof, Nicholas. “New York Times, The Children of Pornhub.” The New York Times. 4 Dec. 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/opinion/sunday/pornhub-rape-trafficking.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article.

[10] Brannon, Valerie C. “Free speech and the regulation of social media content.” Congressional Research Service, available at: https://fas. org/sgp/crs/misc 45650 (2019).

[11] Dias, Elizabeth. “Trump Signs Bill Amid Momentum to Crack Down on Trafficking.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Apr. 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/11/us/backpage-sex-trafficking.html.

[12] Bruno, Bianca. “Courthouse News Service.” Courthouse News Service, https://www.courthousenews.com/.

[13] Cole, Samantha. “How to Remove Revenge Porn Videos From Pornhub.” How to Remove Revenge Porn Videos From Pornhub. 2 Feb. 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/epgpqa/how-to-remove-videos-from-pornhub.

[14] Mailberg, Emanuel, and Samantha Cole. “We Tried to Get Nonconsensual Porn Off Pornhub.” The Endless Battle to Remove Girls Do Porn Videos From Pornhub. 6 Feb. 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/9393zp/how-pornhub-moderation-works-girls-do-porn

[15] Mohan, Megha. “Call for Credit Card Freeze on Porn Sites.” BBC News. BBC, 07 May 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-52543508.

[16] Nicholas Kristof, Nicholas. “New York Times, The Children of Pornhub.” The New York Times. 4 Dec. 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/opinion/sunday/pornhub-rape-trafficking.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article.

[17] SuraneBookmark, Jennifer, Jennifer Surane, Stay Updated With Business News On BloombergQuint, and Business News. “Mastercard to Review Pornhub Ties After Column Spurs Outrage.” BloombergQuint. 07 Dec. 2020,https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-06/pornhub-complaints-by-columnist-prompt-mastercard-review-of-ties.

[18] Associated Press, “Visa, Mastercard Investigating Their Ties with Pornhub”, 06 Dec. 2020, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/visa-mastercard-investigating-their-business-ties-with-pornhub-01607307806?redirect=amp#click=https://t.co/FjLoH4fd5Y.

[19] Shaban, Hamza. “Mastercard Severs Ties with Pornhub, Citing Illegal Content.” The Washington Post. WP Company, 11 Dec. 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/12/10/pornhub-mastercard-ban-mindgeek/.

[20] Pornhub, “Our Commitment to Trust and Safety”, (2020), https://help.pornhub.com/hc/en-us/categories/360002934613.

[21] Shaban, Hamza. “Mastercard Severs Ties with Pornhub, Citing Illegal Content.” The Washington Post. WP Company, 11 Dec. 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/12/10/pornhub-mastercard-ban-mindgeek/.

[22] Valinsky, Jordan. “Pornhub Removes a Majority of Its Videos after Investigation Reveals Child Abuse.” CNN. Cable News Network, 15 Dec. 2020, https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2020/12/15/business/pornhub-videos-removed/index.html?__twitter_impression=true.

[23] “Sasse, Merkley Unveil Urgently Needed Legislation to Crack Down on Online Sexual Exploitation.” Senator Ben Sasse. 18 Dec. 2020, https://www.merkley.senate.gov/news/press-releases/merkley-sasse-unveil-urgently-needed-legislation-to-crack-down-on-online-sexual-exploitation.

[24] Cho, Sooyoung, and Andreas H. Krasser. “What makes us care? The impact of cultural values, individual factors, and attention to media content on motivation for ethical consumerism.” International Social Science Review 86.1/2 (2011): 3-23.

[25] Lee, Sora, “Again, NamYang…Why They Were Not able to Escape the name of “Hierarchical Violence Company”, HankookIlbo, 10, May, 2020, https://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/202005081470382857.

Posted in 2021, Spring 2021.